Usually, moral philosophy oscillate between Hume and Kant; emotional utilitarism and rational deontologism. Hauser, in Moral Minds, add another perspective, a "rawlsian" one. I found a nice graphical depiction of these models:
"event perception triggers an analysis of the causal and intentional properties underlying the relevant actions and their consequences. This analysis triggers, in turn, a moral judgment that will, most likely, trigger the systems of emotion and conscious reasoning. The single most important difference between the Rawlsian model and the other two is that emotions and conscious reasoning follow from the moral judgment as opposed to being causally responsible for them."
- Hauser, M. D. (2006). The liver and the moral organ. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci, 1(3), 214-220.
Also, in "The Case for Nietzschean Moral Psychology", Knobe et Leiter constrast Arisotle, Kant and Nietzsche on moral psychology. It turns out that human are more Nietzschean than we thought!
Anyone knows another great philosopher who gave his/her name to a moral psychology?